What is Fusion Sample Preparation? Application, Benefits, Industries, Instrument

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Fusion sample preparation, also known as sample fusion, is a technique used in analytical chemistry and materials science to prepare solid samples for analysis by various analytical instruments, such as X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometers, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometers (ICP-OES), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometers (ICP-MS). The process involves fusing a solid sample, typically a powdered or finely ground material, with a fluxing agent at high temperatures to create a homogeneous glass bead or disk. This glassy sample is then suitable for analysis, allowing for the determination of elemental composition.

Application of Fusion Sample Preparation

Fusion sample preparation is primarily used for preparing solid samples, especially those with complex matrices, for analysis by techniques like X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). These techniques are used to determine the elemental composition of a sample. Fusion is particularly useful when dealing with materials that are difficult to dissolve or that require high-temperature treatment to break down their matrix. Fusion sample preparation is a crucial step in various scientific and industrial applications, particularly in the fields of analytical chemistry, materials science, and nuclear physics. The goal of fusion sample preparation is to create homogeneous and representative samples for analysis, often by melting or fusing solid samples into a glass bead or disk.

Some common applications include:

  • Metallurgical Analysis: Determination of metal content in ores, alloys, and other metallurgical samples.
  • Geological Analysis: Analysis of rock and mineral samples to identify the presence of various elements and compounds.
  • Environmental Analysis: Monitoring and analyzing environmental samples, such as soil and sediment, for pollutants and trace elements.
  • Cement and Construction Materials: Analysis of cement, concrete, and construction materials to ensure quality and compliance with standards.

Major Applications of Fusion Sample Preparation

  1. Elemental Analysis: Fusion sample preparation is commonly used in atomic spectroscopy techniques such as X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). It allows for the determination of the elemental composition of a wide range of materials, including geological samples, metals, ceramics, and glass.
  2. Glass and Ceramics Industry: In the glass and ceramics industry, fusion sample preparation is used to create homogeneous glass beads or disks for quality control and compositional analysis of raw materials, glass products, and ceramics.
  3. Geological Exploration: Geologists use fusion sample preparation to analyze rock and mineral samples. This helps in identifying mineral composition, geochemical exploration, and understanding geological processes.
  4. Metallurgy: In metallurgical applications, fusion sample preparation is used for the analysis of metal alloys, including the determination of impurities and alloy composition. This is critical for quality control in the production of metals and alloys.
  5. Archaeology and Art Conservation: Fusion sample preparation can be employed in the analysis of archaeological artifacts and artworks, including the determination of the elemental composition of pigments, ceramics, and metals used in their creation.
  6. Nuclear Research: In nuclear physics and nuclear engineering, fusion sample preparation is used to create targets for various experiments, including neutron activation analysis and nuclear reaction studies. It involves producing thin, uniform layers of a specific material for irradiation.
  7. Quality Control in Pharmaceuticals: Fusion sample preparation is used for the analysis of pharmaceutical samples, such as glass vials and containers, to ensure they meet regulatory standards and do not leach harmful elements into drugs.
  8. Forensic Analysis: In forensic science, fusion sample preparation can be employed to analyze glass fragments from crime scenes to determine their composition and match them to potential sources.
  9. Material Characterization: Researchers and engineers use fusion sample preparation to analyze a wide range of materials, including polymers, composites, and ceramics, to study their physical and chemical properties, such as melting points, crystallinity, and composition.


  1. Homogeneity: Fusion preparation results in a homogeneous molten sample, ensuring that the elements of interest are evenly distributed throughout the sample.
  2. Matrix Elimination: Many complex sample matrices can be broken down and simplified during fusion, reducing interference and enhancing the accuracy of elemental analysis.
  3. High-Temperature Decomposition: Fusion can break down samples that have high melting points or are resistant to decomposition through other methods.
  4. Reduced Contamination: Fusion eliminates the risk of contamination that may occur during traditional sample preparation methods.
  5. Speed and Efficiency: Fusion is often a faster method compared to some traditional techniques, which can involve multiple digestion steps.
  6. High Precision and Accuracy: The combination of thorough decomposition and homogeneity leads to higher precision and accuracy in the elemental analysis of samples.
  7. Sample Throughput: Fusion can be automated, allowing for higher sample throughput compared to manual dissolution methods.

Industries: Fusion sample preparation finds applications in various industries, including:

Several industries benefit from fusion sample preparation due to its ability to provide accurate elemental analysis of challenging samples:

  1. Metallurgy: Analysis of metal alloys, steels, and other metallic materials for quality control and compositional analysis.
  2. Pharma:
  3. Mining and Geology: Analysis of ores, minerals, and geological samples to determine elemental composition and identify valuable minerals.
  4. Environmental Analysis: Testing of soil, sediment, and other environmental samples for the presence of heavy metals and pollutants.
  5. Ceramics and Glass: Quality control of ceramic and glass materials used in industries such as construction, electronics, and manufacturing.
  6. Research and Development: Fusion is used in research settings to study the composition of novel materials and investigate new analytical methods.
  7. Archaeology and Cultural Heritage: Analysis of archaeological artifacts and cultural heritage materials to determine their elemental composition and origin.

It’s worth noting that while fusion sample preparation offers significant benefits, it requires specialized equipment and expertise due to the high temperatures involved. Additionally, the choice of flux and fusion conditions can impact the accuracy and precision of the analysis, making proper method development crucial for reliable results.

Revolutionizing Sample Preparation with FORJ™: The Ultimate Fusion Instrument for Speed, Precision, and Reliability

Now, we are introducing the world’s fastest, safest, and most accurate fusion device for sample preparation.

FORJ™ is a game-changer for sample prep by fusion since it was created to give the highest levels of robustness, unparalleled productivity, and superior-quality outcomes. FORJ is a crucial component of your analytical process, regardless of whether your analysis is based on X-ray fluorescence (XRF), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), or atomic absorption (AA).

  1. Sturdy and trustworthy
  2. A lot of output
  3. Recurring outcomes
  4. Simple integration, setup, and use

FORJ Claisse Technology: A Next-level fusion instrument

Original Source: https://www.malvernpanalytical.com/en/products/product-range/claisse-range/forj

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs): Fusion Sample Preparation

What is fusion sample preparation?

Fusion sample preparation, also known as sample fusion, is a technique used in analytical chemistry to prepare solid samples for elemental analysis. It involves melting a sample at high temperatures to ensure the complete dissolution of its constituents.

What types of samples are suitable for fusion preparation? 

Fusion is particularly useful for samples with complex matrices, such as ores, minerals, metals, and environmental materials like soil and sediment. Samples that are difficult to dissolve or require high-temperature treatment benefit from fusion.

Which analytical techniques utilize fusion-prepared samples?

Fusion-prepared samples are commonly analyzed using techniques like X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). These techniques help determine the elemental composition of the samples.

What is FORJ™, and what makes it stand out in sample preparation for fusion?

FORJ™ is a fusion instrument developed for sample preparation. It distinguishes itself by being the world’s fastest, safest, and most accurate fusion instrument, offering robustness, productivity, and superior-quality results.

How does FORJ™ ensure robust and reliable sample preparation?

FORJ™ guarantees robust and reliable sample preparation through its advanced engineering and design, which minimizes errors and inconsistencies in the fusion process. It has been built to withstand various operational conditions, ensuring dependable performance.

Can FORJ™ handle a high sample throughput?

Yes, FORJ™ is designed for high throughput. Its efficient fusion process allows for the quick preparation of samples, making it ideal for laboratories with a high volume of samples to process.

What does “repeatable results” mean in the context of FORJ™?

“Repeatable results” mean that FORJ™ consistently produces the same fusion outcomes when processing identical samples. This ensures that your analytical data remains consistent and reliable over time.

Is FORJ™ compatible with different analytical techniques like X-ray fluorescence (XRF), inductively coupled plasma (ICP), and atomic absorption (AA)?

Yes, FORJ™ is compatible with various analytical techniques, including XRF, ICP, and AA. It serves as an essential link in the analytical chain by providing properly fused samples for these methods.

How easy is it to integrate FORJ™ into an existing laboratory setup?

FORJ™ is designed for easy integration into existing laboratory setups. Its user-friendly interface and straightforward installation process make it convenient for labs looking to enhance their sample preparation capabilities.

Can FORJ™ be operated by personnel with minimal experience in sample preparation?

Yes, FORJ™ is designed to be user-friendly and easy to use. While some training may be required, even personnel with minimal experience in sample preparation can quickly learn to operate it effectively.

Does FORJ™ come with any maintenance requirements?

Like any scientific instrument, FORJ™ may require periodic maintenance to ensure its continued performance. Detailed maintenance instructions and support are typically provided to users to help keep the instrument in optimal condition.

Is FORJ™ suitable for both research and industrial applications?

Yes, FORJ™ is versatile and can be used in both research and industrial applications where accurate sample preparation is essential for analytical processes.

Are there any safety features incorporated into FORJ™?

Yes, FORJ™ prioritizes safety. It includes safety features to minimize the risk of accidents during the sample preparation process, ensuring the well-being of operators and the integrity of the laboratory environment.

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