What is Universal Testing Machine (UTM Machine)? UTM Machine working Procedure [Explained]

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Basic Introduction of UTM Machine:

A Universal Testing Machine (UTM) is a type of mechanical testing equipment that is utilized for determining the mechanical properties of various materials, such as tensile strength, compressive strength, bending strength, and shear strength. The UTM works by applying a controlled tensile or compressive load to the specimen being tested and measuring its response.

The UTM machine comprises two primary components: the loading frame and the control panel. The loading frame is responsible for applying a load to the specimen, and the control panel is utilized to set the test parameters and record the test results.

To begin the testing procedure, the specimen is first prepared according to specific standards for the material being tested. Next, the specimen is placed into the grips of the loading frame, which can be adjusted to securely hold the specimen.

The test parameters are then established utilizing the control panel, including the type of test, load rate, and test duration. The machine is then started, and the load is gradually applied to the specimen at the specified rate. As the specimen is subjected to the load, the machine records the load and the corresponding deformation of the specimen.

Once the testing process is completed, the machine automatically stops, and the test results are displayed on the control panel. The results usually include the maximum load the specimen can withstand before failure, the deformation or strain at the point of failure, and the modulus of elasticity of the material.

Aside from mechanical properties testing, UTM machines are also capable of performing other testing procedures, such as compression testing, flexural testing, and shear testing.

In conclusion, the UTM machine is an essential tool for determining the mechanical properties of materials. Its working procedure involves subjecting a specimen to a controlled load and measuring its response, which provides valuable information for material design and quality control.

What is UTM Machine?

UTM machine is also known as UTM tester, materials testing machine or material testing frame and that’s why manufacturers have a common name `Universal testing machine’ and this machine used to test the tensile strength and compressive strength of materials. And other mechanical properties like tension, exerting tensile, and compression or transverse stresses. Also gives different tests like peel test, flexural test, tension test, bend test, fiction test, spring test, etc. UTM machines have different roles stripped of capabilities or marketed for specific industries & sectors which play unique roles in the development of infrastructure, roads, and highways. UTM is one of the best multi-purpose equipment for R&D labs or the QC department. In basic terms, there are a few examples of what UTM machines can do?

  1. Tensile Test: When you take a single piece of anything and pull that material from the it’s end until it breaks in two parts, so such measurement of Tension/elongation is called tensile strength of materials.
  2. Compression Test: This is compressive strength of materials means this is completely opposite of Tensile strength testing as mentioned above, basically a maximum pressure has to apply on any object up to its break points. This is called compressive strength of any object. This test also useful to find how much load can bear on bridges pillars, building beams or etc.

Other Functions of UTM Machine are:

  1. Adhesion Tests
  2. Pull-Out Tests
  3. Bending Test
  4. Hysteresis Test

How does UTM Machine work?

When the start button is pressed input of the pin is triggered and the attached extensometer starts recording readings of compression / tensile test UTM is also used with different levels of capacity like 300KN to 1,000KN. Do you know, how rubber is stretched by your hands? Yes, off-course you can do this. But think if materials like iron, copper, semiconductors, etc. Universal testing (UTM), also known as a universal tester.

The Two clamps hold the object and pressures will release gradually or in a speed according to different load capacity parameters. UTM provides the value of load application and respective displacement. For the tensile test of any object, the apparatus slowly pulls the object from two ends,s and the machine measures the elongation strength of the object. A digital indicator captures a reading including all parameters of compression and tensile strength.

How to use UTM Machine?

Different machines have different settings, few machines can automatically calculate the displacement of crossheads on which object is held. But also during a tensile test, the machine also records + & – slipping of an object into grips. That’s why UTM gives us a precise measurement.

Components of UTM:

  1. Load Frame
  2. Load Cell
  3. Cross head
  4. Means of measuring extension or deformation
  5. Output Device

Also Read: What is CTM Machine?

What are the Variants of Universal Testing Machine (UTM)?

  • Universal Testing Machines (Computerised), Capacity 300kN (AIM-651-1)
  • Universal Testing Machines (Computerised), Capacity 600kN (AIM-652-1)
  • Universal Testing Machines (Computerised), Capacity 1000kN (AIM-653-1)
  • Servo-Pneumatic Universal Testing Machine
  • Servo-Hydraulic Universal Testing Machine – 100 kN
  • Servo-Hydraulic Universal Testing Machine
  • Multi-station Universal Tester
  • LFM-T : Torsional Universal Testing Machine
  • LFM-H : High Capacity Universal Testing Machine
  • LFV-Fatigue Testing Machine
  • LFM-L : Low Capacity Universal Testing Machine
  • TTM – High Capacity Hydraulic Universal Testing Machine
  • LFM-C : Compact Table Top Universal Testing Machine
  • Material Testing / Universal Testing Machine / UTM – SL Series
  • Material Testing Machine/ Universal Testing Machine/ UTM – ST Series

Block Diagram of UTM

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions):

What should be the original and final dimensions of the universal testing machine?

It depends on the capacity of UTM like there are a few UTM like:
Multi-station Universal Tester
Torsional Universal Testing Machine
High Capacity Universal Testing Machine
Low Capacity Universal Testing Machine

Least count of UTM machine for measurement of load?

It depends on load capacity….

Can we set up a UTM machine other than the ground floor?

It depends on load capacity….

Also Read: Concrete – A Man-Made Versatile Composite

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