What is Universal Testing Machine (UTM Machine)? UTM Machine working Procedure [Explained]

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Introduction:

What is UTM Machine?

UTM machine is also known as UTM tester, materials testing machine or material testing frame and that’s why manufactures gave a common name `Universal testing machine’ and this machine used to test the tensile strength and compressive strength of materials. And other mechanical properties like tension, exerting tensile, and compression or transverse stresses. Also gives different tests like peel test, flexural test, tension test, bend test, fiction test, spring test, etc. UTM machines have different roles stripped of capabilities or marketed for specific industries & sectors which play unique roles in the development of infrastructure, roads, and highways. UTM is one of the best multi-purpose equipment for R&D labs or the QC department. In basic terms, there are a few examples of what UTM machines can do?

  1. Tensile Test: When you take a single piece of anything and pull that material from the it’s end until it breaks in two parts, so such measurement of Tension/elongation is called tensile strength of materials.
  2. Compression Test: This is compressive strength of materials means this is completely opposite of Tensile strength testing as mentioned above, basically a maximum pressure has to apply on any object up to its break points. This is called compressive strength of any object. This test also useful to find how much load can bear on bridges pillars, building beams or etc.

Other Functions of UTM Machine are:

  1. Adhesion Tests
  2. Pull-Out Tests
  3. Bending Test
  4. Hysteresis Test

How does UTM Machine works?

When the start button is pressed input of the pin is triggered and the attached extensometer starts recording readings of compression / tensile test and UTM is also used with the different levels of capacity like 300KN to 10,00KN. Do you know, how rubber is stretched by your hands? Yes, off-course you can do this. But think if materials like iron, copper, semiconductors, etc. A universal testing (UTM), also known as a universal tester.

The Two clamps hold the object and pressures will release gradually or in speed according to different load capacity parameters. UTM provides the value of load application and respective displacement. For the tensile test of any object, the apparatus slowly pulls the object from two ends,s and the machine measures the elongation strength of the object. A digital indicator captures a reading including all parameters of compression and tensile strength.

How to use UTM Machine?

Different machines have different settings, few machines can automatically calculate the displacement of crossheads on which object is held. But also during a tensile test, the machine also records + & – slipping of an object into grips. That’s why UTM gives us a precise measurement.

Components of UTM:

  1. Load Frame
  2. Load Cell
  3. Cross head
  4. Means of measuring extension or deformation
  5. Output Device

Also Read: What is CTM Machine?

What are the Variants of Universal Testing Machine (UTM)?

  • Universal Testing Machines (Computerised), Capacity 300kN (AIM-651-1)
  • Universal Testing Machines (Computerised), Capacity 600kN (AIM-652-1)
  • Universal Testing Machines (Computerised), Capacity 1000kN (AIM-653-1)
  • Servo-Pneumatic Universal Testing Machine
  • Servo-Hydraulic Universal Testing Machine – 100 kN
  • Servo-Hydraulic Universal Testing Machine
  • Multi-station Universal Tester
  • LFM-T : Torsional Universal Testing Machine
  • LFM-H : High Capacity Universal Testing Machine
  • LFV-Fatigue Testing Machine
  • LFM-L : Low Capacity Universal Testing Machine
  • TTM – High Capacity Hydraulic Universal Testing Machine
  • LFM-C : Compact Table Top Universal Testing Machine
  • Material Testing / Universal Testing Machine / UTM – SL Series
  • Material Testing Machine/ Universal Testing Machine/ UTM – ST Series

Block Diagram of UTM

FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions):

What should be the original and final dimensions of the universal testing machine?

It depends on the capacity of UTM like there are a few UTM like:
Multi-station Universal Tester
Torsional Universal Testing Machine
High Capacity Universal Testing Machine
Low Capacity Universal Testing Machine

Least count of UTM machine for measurement of load?

It depends on load capacity….

Can we set up a UTM machine other than the ground floor?

It depends on load capacity….

Also Read: Concrete – A Man-Made Versatile Composite

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